45) While the American Association on Mental Retardation, (46) also cited in Atkins, continues to include juvenile onset as a prong of its definition, the organization's amicus brief focused on the reduced culpability associated with mental retardation, not its development or cause.
3 (outlining the definitions of "mental retardation" used by the American Association on Mental Retardation and the American Psychiatric Association).
The American Association on Mental Retardation
(AAMR) publishes an edited manual approximately every 10 years on terminology, classification, and clinical judgment related to mental retardation and disability.
Looking back over the 125-year history of the American Association on Mental Retardation
and the family research that germinated and finally blossomed during that time, one can see that parents were not pulled, magically, from a seemingly empty hat.
Note: AAMR = American Association on Mental Retardation
, EMR = educable mentally retarded.
The position that society should share a responsibility for resolving the unemployment problem among persons with mental retardation also finds support in the current conceptualization of mental retardation reflected in the new manual (1992) of American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR).
The 1992 manual of the American Association on Mental Retardation "represents a paradigm shift, from a view of mental retardation as an absolute trait expressed solely by an individual to an expression of the interaction between the person with limited intellectual functioning and the environment" (AAMR, 1992, p.
Clearly these new definitions proposed in the American Association on Mental Retardation
definition have implications for all rehabilitation settings and providers.
Other organizations with similar interests include the American Association on Mental Retardation
, which has organized a special interest group on mental health services, the American Psychiatric Association, which has a committee on developmental disabilities, and the European Association for Mental Health in Mental Retardation.