Five species were significant indicators of alpine tundra habitat: American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), American Pipit
(Anthus rubescens), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), Smith's Longspur (Calcaras pictus), and Lapland Longspur (Calcaras lapponicus).
Species that did not exhibit this pattern tended to be those that are associated with high-elevation habitats and were detected primarily at higher point count stations, such as Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Hermit Thrush, and American Pipit (Fig.
The narrowest observed elevational ranges were generally evident in a handful of species that are restricted to relatively low (for example, Belted Kingfisher, Willow Flycatcher, Red-eyed Vireo, Veery, Brown-headed Cowbird) or relatively high (for example, Clark's Nutcracker, Horned Lark, Mountain Bluebird, American Pipit) habitats in the parks.
With the guide's release, out-of-towners will learn what local birders already know: that the Yaquina Head Outstanding Natural Area is the closest place you can get by land to a colony of 65,000 common murres; that Sally's Bend in Newport is a great place to see northern shrike, American pipit
and all six species of grebes; and that Sweet Creek Falls near Mapleton offers glimpses through old growth trees of the American dipper, a grey-colored songbird that walks under swift-running streams, eating cranefly larvae.
Evidence of a second brood, after successful raising of the first, has not been documented unequivocally in four of those species: Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris (Beason, 1995), American Pipit Anthus rubescens (Hendricks and Verbeek, 2012), Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus (Hussell and Montgomerie, 2002), and Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis (Montgomerie and Lyon, 2011), although two cases of second broods produced by unmarked females were suspected in a seven-year study of Lapland Longspurs at 71.3[degrees]N in Alaska (Custer and Pitelka, 1977).
Horned Larks, American Pipits, Lapland Longspurs, and Snow Buntings all forage primarily by walking and picking food off the ground and vegetation, and nestling diets consist almost exclusively of insects and other invertebrates (Beason, 1995; Hussell and Montgomerie, 2002; Montgomerie and Lyon, 2011; Hendricks and Verbeek, 2012).
Thirty-eight bird species, all of which were suspected of breeding, were recorded at 34 sites in the study area, and three species (Canada goose, American pipit, and Lapland longspur) were recorded at every site (Table 1).
Some of the most abundant, open-country landbirds observed in this study (the Lapland longspur, American pipit, savannah sparrow, and horned lark) were previously reported to be widespread and common breeders across the peninsula north of the tree line (Manning, 1949).
Snowy owl harfang des neiges Nyctea scandiaca 18 Short-eared owl hibou des marais Asio flammeus 29 Common raven grand corbeau Corvus corax 26 Horned lark alouette hausse- Eremophila 82 col alpestris American pipit pipit d'Amerique Anthus rubescens 100 American tree bruant hudsonien Spizella arborea 88 sparrow Savannah sparrow bruant des pres Passerculus 85 sandwichensis White-crowned bruant a couronne Zontrichia 53 sparrow blanche leucophrys Lapland longspur bruant lapon Calcarius 100 lapponicus Snow bunting bruant des neiges Plectrophenax 26 nivalis Common/hoary sizerin flamme/ Carduelis flammea/ 32 redpoll blanchatre hornemanni TABLE 2.
Slopes with southern exposures are also preferred habitats of many birds (e.g., American pipit Anthus rubescens, hoary redpoll Carduelis hornemanni) owing to the composition of the low arctic vegetation (Renaud et al., 1981; Zoltai et al., 1983).
2500 ha) also provide rich habitat for several species not usually found in the valley itself, which include northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe, hoary redpoll, and American pipit. Three species of raptors--peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, rough-legged hawk Buteo lagopus, and snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca--also nest in the cliffs of these hills.
- - Tree Swallow - - - Barn Swallow - - - Common Raven + + + Northern Wheatear - - - American Pipit - - + Yellow Warbler - - - Northern