Besides participating in state inquiries and municipal vice commissions, Progressive reformers created extra-governmental associations like the New York Committee of Fourteen, the Chicago Committee of Fifteen, and a national umbrella group, the American Social Hygiene Association.  Popular support for anti-vice reform exceeded, however, the limited membership of these associations.
 To that end, Bascom Johnson, George Kneeland, and other members of the American Social Hygiene Association's staff helped local reformers establish municipal vice commissions to rally state support for the red-light abatement acts.
 The beauty of these laws, as Bascom Johnson the head of the American Social Hygiene Association's legal department observed, was that they turned former enemies into formidable allies.
Eliot, President Emeritus of Harvard, was a member of both the American Social Hygiene Association and the New England Watch and Ward Society, see "President's Address," First Annual Report, 19 13-1914, pages 3-6, file 1, box 170, ASHA; J.
Rockefeller, Jr., 13 March 1915, file 39, box 6, series: boards, RG 2-OMR, RFA; "American Social Hygiene Association: Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Executive Committee," 27 May 1915, file 3, box 5, ASHA; New York Committee of Fifteen to John D.
A year later, in 1913, Rockefeller brokered a merger of the AVA with the American Federation for Sex Hygiene to form the American Social Hygiene Association, which had its headquarters in New York City.
2, 2; "Billy Sunday and Segregation," American Social Hygiene Association Bulletin, vol.
(121.) "National Merger to Fight White Slavery," 1991-1992; American Social Hygiene Association, First Annual Report, 1913-1914, 15; Johnson, "The Injunction and Abatement Law," 231-256; "Relation of the American Social Hygiene Association to Community Welfare: Department of Legal Measures" (typescript), 25 October 1923, file 1, box 1, ASHA; Mackey, Red Lights Out, 122-125.
Gardner, Jr.'s dissertation, "Microbes and Morals: The Social Hygiene Crusade in New York City, 1892-1917" (Indiana University, 1973), he would have understood more fully the process through which social purity, a nineteenth-century coalition of purity reformers and feminists, became social hygiene, the American Social Hygiene Association dominated by Rockefeller.
The American Social Hygiene Association, consolidating earlier national organizations that promoted sex education, worked with Teachers' College, Columbia University, in the integration of sex education into biology courses.