With no major trade or economic deals expected, the aim, officials in Tokyo said, is to confirm an upgrading of joint defense guidelines and to advertise the bright side of Japan and its people, including Americans of Japanese ancestry
, and possibly sell some bullet train systems.
citizens, from the West Coast (the decision was limited to the exclusion policy, and did not take up the issue of internment), while in Ex parte Endo, the justices unanimously agreed that "concededly loyal'' Americans of Japanese ancestry
could not continue to be detained.
One of Guthrie-Shimizu's concerns is to analyze the experiences of Americans of Japanese ancestry
Particularly noteworthy was his success, achieved almost singlehandedly in the mid-1930s, in defeating legislation that would have prohibited Americans of Japanese ancestry
from engaging in the fishing industry.
His studies at the former Compton Junior College were suspended in 1942 when the government forcibly relocated about 120,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry
to internment camps.
In reaction to the bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan in 1941, US President Franklin Roosevelt signed executive order by which Japanese, Americans of Japanese ancestry
, German and Italian citizens, permanent residents, and American citizens of those respective ancestries (and American citizen family members) were were placed in camps.
Latin American and Caribbean governments like Peru, Bolivia, Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua cooperated with the United States in turning over Latin Americans of Japanese ancestry
to the United States government.
However, another reason needs to be explored that centers on the problematic issue of their dual identity as Americans of Japanese ancestry
fighting for a government that had interned many of their family members at home while they were sent to fight the Japanese abroad.
Although by 1941, second- and third-generation, native-born Americans of Japanese ancestry
were US citizens, Okihiro argues convincingly that Japanese in the US had always been seen as outsiders harboring loyalties to imperial Japan.
look upon the legislation as permitting a reoccurrence of the roundups which resulted in the detention of Americans of Japanese ancestry
during World War II.
More than 110,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry
were forced into such camps, the U.
Alter Pearl Harbor, the United States declared that Americans of Japanese ancestry
were considered 4C--the Selective Service Commission designation for enemy alien.