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References in periodicals archive ?
Androgen response element containing a consensus AR binding sequence composed of two 6 bp asymmetrical elements separated by a 3 bp spacer was used.
[7] Nonstandard abbreviations: hK1, pancreatic /renal kallikrein protein; hK2, glandular kallikrein; hK3 (PSA), prostate-specific antigen; hK4-hK15, human kallikreins 4-15; HR, hormone receptor; HRE, hormone response element; ARE, androgen response element; and DHT, dihydroxytestosterone.
The "classic" hormone-dependent expression model proposes that androgen activation of the androgen receptor leads to HR binding to androgen response elements (AREs), thus leading to transcriptional activation of PSA and hK2.
At the molecular level, PSA gene expression is regulated by the androgen receptor via androgen response elements (13).
Enzalutamide (MDV 3100) is a novel AR antagonist that binds to AR with an eight-times higher affinity than bicalutamide and reduces the efficiency of nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor, DNA binding to androgen response elements, and recruitment of coactivators by the androgen receptor [11].
Putative androgen response elements are present in the 5'-regulatory region of the human myostatin gene promoter (Ma et al., 2001).
When bound by androgens, cytoplasmic AR translocates to the nucleus and binds to androgen response elements within androgen-responsive genes [3].
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