Anemia of Chronic Disease
(ACD) presents as iron anemia combined with iron overload, with or without evidence of genetic hereditary forms of hemochromatosis.
The establishment and use of a comorbidity care plan that integrates anemia of chronic disease
care with CKD care facilitates practice growth that is holistic and patient-centered (Barrett et al.
sup], Dysregulated iron status has been suspected to be linked to anemia of chronic disease
and to ACVD.
Table 1: Laboratory Differentiation of Anemia of Chronic Disease
versus Iron Deficiency Anemia Biomarker ACD IDA ACD + IDA Serum iron Low Low Low Transferrin (TIBC) Low High Low Transferrin saturation Low Low Low Ferritin High Low High or normal Inflammatory markers High Negative High sTFR/log ferritin ratio Low High High Serum hepcidin High Low High
Inappropriate expression of hepcidin is associated with iron refractory anemia: implications for the anemia of chronic disease
In addition, the MCV (calculating the average volume of erythrocytes) should be assessed because low MCV suggests anemia of chronic diseases
(ACD), anemia of renal disease, or iron deficiency anemia (Thomas, 2004).
Anemia in the elderly can be attributed to a variety of causes including anemia of chronic disease
(anemia of inflammation), nutritional deficiencies, renal disease, acute or chronic blood loss, hemolytic disorders, and others.
Laboratory tests demonstrated anemia of chronic disease
diagnosed by a hematocrit of 25% associated with a low reticulocyte production index, high serum ferritin, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (91 mm/hr), with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia on serum protein electrophoresis.
NOX-H94 is a candidate for the treatment of anemia of chronic disease
Anemia of chronic disease
(ACD), also known as anemia of inflammation, is a hypoproliferative anemia that develops in response to systemic illness or inflammation such as infection, cancer, and autoimmune conditions.
In contrast, in anemia of chronic disease
and anemia of cancer, data suggest that hepcidin concentrations are increased, causing decreased absorption of iron and increased sequestration of iron in the reticulo-endothelial system, which together account for the observed anemia (6, 14-18).