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References in periodicals archive ?
It can be seen that from Equation (2), the antenna temperature distribution is the weighted average of the product of the target radiation temperature and the antenna pattern, which serves as the smoothing method.
Step 5: To determine the location coordinates of the antenna at the next moment [t.sub.k+i] = [t.sub.k] + i[DELTA]t, and repeat the calculation from Step (2) to Step (4), so as to get the curve of the antenna temperature during the intersection of the radiometer and the target.
The receiver is operating at 5 GHz and its antenna is elevated 5 degrees, so we can determine that the antenna temperature is 30 K.
TABLE II PLANETARY DATA Venus Jupiter S (x [10.sup.-26]) 51.7 80.7 r ([double prime]) 10 21 The aperture efficiency and antenna temperature for a point source are related by the expression[10]
In this equation, k = 1.38 [multiplied by] [10.sup.-23]J[K.sup.-1] is Boltzmann's constant, [A.sub.g] is the geometrical area of the aperture ([m.sup.2]), S is the flux density of the source (W[m.sup.-2] H[z.sup.-1]), [T.sub.a] is the measured increase in antenna temperature due to the source (K) and [[Eta].sub.a] is the aperture efficiency, inclusive of the effects of the radome, blocking and illumination taper.
When the imaging system detects objects within a short range, the antenna temperature contrast between the object and the background is expressed as:
According to Equation 7, the sensitivity improvement due to the use of a low noise TTA is strongly dependent on the antenna temperature and, therefore, on frequency and environment.[1] Figure 5 shows the sensitivity improvement plotted as a function of the reduction in noise figure through the use of a TTA with the effective antenna temperature as a parameter (assuming that the noise figure of the improved system is 1.5 dB) corresponding to an effective noise temperature of 120 K.
The natural sources include lightning, celestial radio sources, atmospheric sources and thermal radiation from the ground and other physical structures.a The effective antenna temperature also depends on the antenna pattern.
Three sources of apparent brightness temperature play an important role in determining the PMMW antenna temperature that will be observed by a low-altitude, earth terrain sensor.
However, Ch values can be obtained directly by measuring the ratio of antenna temperature differences.
By using the radiometer not to measure directly the antenna temperature, but rather the difference between this and some known reference temperature, the sensitivity of the measurement to gain and noise temperature instabilities is greatly reduced.
This equivalent blackbody temperature is referred to as the antenna temperature ([T.sub.a]).