A weak D is considered to be a non-reactive or less than a 2+ reaction, usually detected only by 37[degrees]C incubation and anti-D binding with anti-human globulin. Sandler et al.
Daratumumab (anti-CD38 mediated) positive indirect anti-human globulin test can persist for up to six months following the last treatment.
Antibodies to Scianna are detected by anti-human globulin technique and can be resistant to enzyme treatment.
Abbreviations ABMR: Antibody-mediated rejection Abs: Antibodies AGH: Anti-human globulin
CDC: Complement dependent cytotoxicity CDC-AHG: Complement dependent cytotoxicity-antihuman-globulin enhanced DSA: Donor-specific antibodies DTT: Dithiothreitol ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay FCXM: Flow-cytometry cross-match HLA: Human leukocyte antigens i-DSA: Immunodominant DSA IVIg: Intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulin KTx: Kidney transplantation MFI: Mean fluorescence intensity MM: Mismatch POD: Postoperative day PCR-SSO: Polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotides PCR-SSP: Polymerase Chain reaction single strand polymorphisms PRA: Panel reactive antibodies TCMR: T-cell mediated rejection XM: Cross-match.
The principle of using anti-human globulins
was first described by Moreschi in 1908, (1) but it was not until 1945 that Robin Coombs introduced it to clinical medicine initially as a method to demonstrate RBC agglutination in the presence of what was then thought to be an "incomplete" or "blocking" antibody as seen within the context of the IAT.
In addition, 103 of these samples had been processed using routine incubation CDC, and 111 using anti-human globulin CDC (Figure 1).
14 samples were positive on extended incubation CDC but negative on anti-human globulin CDC, with positivity on the former ranging from 10-15%.
Comparison of anti-human globulin CDC with routine incubation CDC also showed a significant difference (p=0.003; t = 3.03) with a mean increase in reactivity of 7% (standard error 2.3).
Abbreviations: AHG, anti-human globulin; IS, immediate spin; OG, other gel; OT, other tube; Poly, polyspecific; RT, room temperature; UG, uniform gel; UT, uniform tube.
Abbreviations: AHG, anti-human globulin; OT, other tube; RT, room temperature; UG, uniform gel; UT, uniform tube.
Abbreviations: ABT, antibody titration;AHG, anti-human globulin; IgG, immunoglobulin G;NaCl, sodium chloride;RT, room temperature; UG, uniform gel;UT, uniform tube;w+, weak plus.