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de Paris VII) describe theoretical and experimental studies in smectic and columnar liquid crystals for advanced students and researchers, covering such topics as structure of the smectic A phase and the transition toward the nematic phase, the continuum theory of smectics A hydrodynamics, dislocations, focal conics, rheology, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric mesophases, twist-grain boundary smectics, hexatic smectics and the smectic B plastic crystal, smectic free films, columnar phases, and growth of a columnar hexagonal phase.
0, molecular dynamics software for Windows, is used to predict phase transitions important in physical and chemical processes; analyze lipid bilayers revealing the function of organic membranes; predict the thermotropic phase transition of antiferroelectric liquid crystalline molecules; and predict tensile strength, elastic modulus, compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient.
These bilayers are stacked parallel or antiparallel along the c-axis to form a ferroelectric or antiferroelectric alignment.