The two-dimensional images were acquired and measured in the parasternal (standard long- and short-axis images) and apical 4-chamber
views, according to the guidelines of the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE).
Mitral inow was assessed from the apical 4-chamber
view with pulsed wave doppler by placing sample volume between the tips of the mitral leaets during diastole.
Caption: Figure 1: Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrates a large pericardial effusion ((a) apical 4-chamber
view and (b) parasternal short axis view) and chest CT shows a large pericardial effusion, bilateral pleural effusions, and atelectasis of the left lower lobe (c).
2]) calculated from left apical 4-chamber
view were 106.
45) The M-mode evaluates systolic function with mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) in apical 4-chamber
view (normal greater than 15 mm) (Fig.
In order to calculate RV 2D-AC according to the formula below , the Right Ventricle Systolic (RVSA) and Diastolic (RVDA) 2D areas were drawn from apical 4-chamber
We measured LV end-systolic and end-diastolic (EDV) volumes from the apical 4-chamber
Transthoracic echocardiographic apical 4-chamber
views of a diastolic turbulent flow at the site of the lateral mitral annulus (black arrow)
For lateral and septal sites apical 4-chamber
view and for anterior and inferior sites apical 2-chamber view was used.
The subcostal 4-chamber view is mainly used to eliminate obvious pathological states such as pericardial tamponade and acute pulmonary artery hypertension; parasternal long-axis and short-axis views' focus on the qualitative assessment of ventricular wall thickness, chamber diameter, left ventricular systolic function, and segmental dyskinesia; and inferior vena cava (IVC) and apical 4-chamber
views are used to qualitatively evaluate the state of volume (apparent low volume and volume overload) and fluid responsiveness.
Giant interventricular septum is seen at TTE apical 4-chamber