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References in periodicals archive ?
As emphasized [12], the terminal auditory nerve fibers are connected to the hair cells in a complex manner, which could make it difficult for electrical stimulation to simulate sound.
(5) If the answers to these questions indicate that stimulation of the auditory nerve fibers near their terminations in the cochlea is important, then it will be necessary to know more about the internal resistances and lines of current flow in the cochlea, and whether the electrical responses normally recorded are a reflection of the transduction of sound into nerve discharges, or directly responsible for stimulating the nerve endings.
The research that I undertook in 1967 on the cat brainstem determined the extent to which neurons could follow the electrical stimulation rate of auditory nerve fibers in the cochlea without being suppressed by inhibitory mechanisms [19-20].
In addition, because 200 spikes/s was shown to be the maximum rate for an acoustic stimulus, Moxon also undertook research to determine the refractory period of auditory nerve fibers using electrical stimulation [22].
Thus it was important to know whether electrical current could be adequately localized to separate groups of auditory nerve fibers in the cochlea for place coding mid to high frequencies of speech, because these are specially relevant to understanding consonants.
They also showed that current was best localized with bipolar stimulation of the peripheral auditory nerve fibers in the cochlea, with current flowing in a radial rather than longitudinal direction (Figure 5).
The analysis of sound frequency and intensity, however, have their origins in the cochlea, and are represented in the pattern of action potential discharges found in auditory nerve fibers.
Stimulation of the hair bundle, as we have seen, causes membrane depolarization, neurotransmitter release, and action potential discharges in auditory nerve fibers.
There are about 20,000 auditory nerve fibers in each human ear, and each of these has a slightly different tuning curve.
It is reported that octopus nerve cells found in mammalian PVCN detect the firing of auditory nerve fibers with excellent temporal precision and transmit this information to the upper auditory nuclei in the brain.
In mammals, spiral ganglion neurons are hardly recovered from injury [71, 72] and the auditory nerve fibers often degenerate after ototoxic insult, including noise damage and ototoxic drugs.
Results vary for different individuals, depending on factors such as age at time of deafness, age at implant surgery, duration of deafness, status of the remaining auditory nerve fibers, training, etc.