Test Results for the Different Additives on NA Sand Binder Sand Mix Max Deflection Time to Max Time to Zero Time to Deflection Failure No additive 0.303 13.3 24.0 132.7 1% Woodflour 0.197 8.7 18.3 70.7 1% RIO 0.363 14.0 28.0 151.7 1% starch 0.123 5.3 15.7 60.7 2% BIO 0.247 12.3 32.7 193.7 2.5% ESA1 0.290 15.0 31.0 190.0 4% ESA2 0.333 17.0 30.7 201.3 6% ESA3 0.267 16.3 32.0 151.7 6% old ESA 0.327 13.0 25.3 103.0 BCIRA
results were mixed.
In a BCIRA
hot distortion test, 71% mid-functionality MDI had roughly the same hot strength as the 68% mid-functionality MDI.
Core Test Results--Supplementary testing of core weight, core LOI, BCIRA and tensile profiles showed the effects of different variables.
Core LOT was a function of binder level, BCIRA at both 1 hr and 24 hr core age was most strongly affected by sand, binder type and binder percentage.
The BCIRA conducted extensive studies in the 1960s and 1970s that indicated the benefits were small compared to the introduction of the same amount of O through each tuyere (tuyere injection).
To illustrate the differences in cupola operations (then and now) Table 4 provides velocity data from the GM study and a BCIRA study in 1977.
"Imagine the consternation in the INCO laboratories when, just as they were finalizing their plans for announcing and commercializing their development, the news broke that Henton Morrogh of BCIRA
was to present a paper at the May, 7 1948, AFS Convention in Philadelphia describing the development of the same material using cerium as the additive," he wrote.
(ACIPCO), Birmingham, Alabama, had been playing with ductile iron along with INCO and BCIRA
, and filed for a patent in November 1948, unaware of INCO's five years of experience.
While there is no single optimum value of permeability, following two guidelines (BCIRA
, June 1973):
Bach, "Some Effects of Nitrogen in Cast Iron," BCIRA
Journal of R & D, June, Vol.
Forty-four years ago, BCIRA
made the first public disclosure of a procedure whereby flake graphite could be converted into spheroidal graphite in cast iron "through a process involving the treatment of low sulfur hypereutectic cast iron with cerium prior to casting."
"Venting of Molds and Cores," BCIRA
Broadsheet 188 (1980).