Plot establishment was as follows:--In BCNP we made 30 permanent plots of 15 x 15m (10 plots in primary, secondary and extracted forest, respectively).
Palm density varied almost two orders of magnitude among studied sites (920 individuals per Ha at LSBS secondary forest compared with 36 individuals per Ha in the primary forest of BCNP, Table 1).
There was a lack of tall palms (>10m) in secondary forests (LSBS and BCNP) as well as in the extracted forest of BCNP.
Avalos (2007) found that extraction processes increase the number of individuals in lower size classes, similar to what was seen at extracted and secondary forests in BCNP. Svenning (1998) reported an analogous preference for disturbed forest in the stilt-rooted palm, Iriartea deltoidea, in lowland Amazonian Ecuador.