The perceived efficacy for academic achievement is based on BCSSE indicators of students' self-evaluation of their abilities to learn course material, to work effectively with others and independently, and to perform in different areas of academic work--writing, speaking, critical and analytical thinking, mathematics, and computing and information technology:
BCSSE items that gather students' judgment of difficulty in getting help with school work, interacting with faculty, or making new friends, are used to measure this construct:
Perceived efficacy for self-regulated learning is based on the BCSSE items that measure students' confidence in their ability to study when there are other interesting things to do, find additional information for course assignments, participate regularly in course discussions, ask instructors for help, finish something they started, and manage their time.
One item from BCSSE survey is used to measure self-efficacy to control distressing rumination.
Financial stress is measured using BCSSE indicators of student perception of difficulty of paying college expenses, expectation to work on- or off-campus, and the need for student loans and work to pay for college expenses.