Once, the bacteria is entered into host, followed by secretion of bacterial virulence proteins into host cells by translocation and virB type IV secretion system this can allow bacteria to be evaded from cellular machinery and formation of BCV within host cells (Marchesini et al., 2011).
The BCV is playing an important role in survival of bacteria and prevents autophagy-mediated destruction of intracellular bacterium B.
Amac: Ultrason rehberliginde (USG) brakiyosefalik ven (BCV) kanulasyonunun teknik olarak zor olmadigi gosterilmistir.
Sonuc: BCV kanulasyon, genelde PIV kanulun cikarilmasi/basarisizliginin otesinde, ortalama 6,3 gunluk kalis suresiyle cocuklar tarafindan iyi tolere edildi.
The brachiocephalic vein (BCV) occurs at the confluence of the internal jugular (IJ) and subclavian veins.
Cannulation of BCV was initially described in 1965 by Yoffa (1) as a landmark-based approach in the supraclavicular fossa.
With the introduction of ultrasound into routine clinical practice, the brachiocephalic approach has regained interest because of the superficial location of BCV, and lack of bone overlying the vein, makes it possible to visualise the entire path of the needle during cannulation.
A single anaesthesiologist began performing USG cannulation of BCV in January 2012 at our institution shortly after its initial description in the literature.
Coincident with our adoption of the USG BCV cannulation technique, our institution also implemented an algorithm intended to limit the number of attempts made to place a PIV cannula in children to prevent trauma and loss of useful veins.
Central line cannulation of the BCV was successful in all patients.
The benefits of USG cannulation of BCV include visualisation of the needle along its entire path from the skin to the vein, patient comfort when the catheter is secured over the top of the shoulder and ease of maintaining dressings, which may reduce incidence of early removal for contamination concerns.
Despite variation in nomenclature, the important distinction from other central venous approaches is that the catheter lies predominately within BCV, even if it enters through the distal portion of the subclavian vein into Pirogoff's confluence.