On the other hand, estimates for veterans from the Census Bureau's 1987 Survey of Veterans (SOV) contrast sharply with the estimates presented by Manski and Wise (1983) in their evaluation of the Basic Educational Opportunity Grants (BEOG
) program for nonveterans.
One of the most influential articles included in Leslie and Brinkman's review was Lee Hansen's (1983) analysis of the effect of the BEOG program.
Kane (1994) tested Hansen's conclusions regarding the impact of the BEOG program on enrollments.
Unlike Jackson, however, these authors reached the conclusion that the implementation of the BEOG program did improve access.
Hansen's 1983 article, which compared enrollments before and after the creation of the BEOG program, concluded that the grants had no significant effect on access.
He found no significant differences in the expectation of lower-income seniors in 1980 as compared to lower-income seniors in the earlier cohort, thus confirming the lack of impact of BEOGs.
The 1972 Amendments kept HEA'65's need-based work-study, BEOG, and GSL loan programs and chartered the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) to purchase current GSL's in order to generate more student loan capital.
Amendments expanded loan eligibility, increased federal insurance guarantees, renamed the BEOG in honor of its original sponsor, Senator Claiborne Pell (D-RI), extended eligibility to all needy full-time and part-time undergraduates, supported the creation of state loan guarantee intermediaries, raised loan limits, and created new parent loan programs.