This was known as the "trampoline effect" in BESR (Ball Exit Speed Ratio measured) bats.
Prior to 2011, bats were measured by the NCAA using BESR formulas.
Russell (2008) describes that BESR is first calculated from this equation where v is equal to velocity:
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The success of the poor white study, published in both English and Afrikaans, resulted in a larger grant and expanded brief for the Bureau which became known as the Bureau for Educational and Social Research (BESR).
The BESR was not only concerned with white education however.
This number represents the BESR
and cannot be a negative.
In the case of the Baum Hitting Machine Test used by the NCAA for the BESR
standard, the test was compromised by comparing a heavier wood bat to a lighter aluminum bat.
Bats are certified for use in officially sanctioned NCAA games if the ball exit speed does not exceed 97 mph at any of the impact locations, corresponding to a BESR
of 0.728 (see corresponding article).
The NCAA requires that all nonwood bats be certified so as to limit their "liveliness." The certification process is accomplished by measuring the performance of a bat under controlled conditions and then assigning a number to it; this number is known as the BESR (Ball Exit Speed Ratio).
The BESR is a number, once known, that allows one to determine the ball exit speed [V.sub.BALL EXIT] when the bat speed [V.sub.BAT] and the pitch speed [V.sub.PITCH] are specified.