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A very significant contribution to this area is the secure BGP (SBGP) proposal by Kent et al.
sBGP defines the correct operation of a BGP speaker in terms of constraint placed on individual protocol messages, including ensuring that all protocol UPDATE messages have not been allowed in transit between the BGP peers and that the UPDATE messages were sent by the peer is indicated.
There are a number of significant issues that have been identified with sBGP including the computation burden for signature generation and validation as well as the increased load in BGP session restart.
A refinement to the sBGP approach is secure origin BGP (SoBGP) proposed by White  in an effort to find a middle ground between the additional security processing overhead and the capabilities of deployed routing systems and security infrastructure.
They were also told that three of these trials would be done under the condition of using a BGPS, and three would be done using their own navigational skills.
The GPS-geotracking training was considered complete when we were satisfied that the participants understood the concepts of locating waypoints using clock-face directions from the BGPS and geotracking, which, as was described earlier, refers to the ability to localize a target using the BGPS after the device speaks the initial "arrived" notice.
The difficulty stemmed from the participants' expectation that the BGPS heading function is based on a compass.
The participants were rotated between the use of the BGPS and the starting position on the carpet squares.
The BGPS, the focus of this study, has five major functions: (1) standard functions, (2) automatic routes, (3) manual routes, (4) points-of-interest files, and (5) virtual functions, as follows:
P3, aged 38, used a dog guide, had enough vision to use a telescope to read street signs and house numbers, had good mental mapping skills, generally ignored environmental cues and depended nearly exclusively on house numbers for wayfinding, solicited information when needed, and had been introduced briefly to BGPS as a participant in another study.
The paired trials (or sessions) consisted of one using BGPS and one using only natural and trained navigational skills.
Training was aimed at teaching the functions required of the BGPS that are required to help a user reorient herself when lost and to locate a given target house in a familiar neighborhood.
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