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They were also told that three of these trials would be done under the condition of using a BGPS, and three would be done using their own navigational skills.
The GPS-geotracking training was considered complete when we were satisfied that the participants understood the concepts of locating waypoints using clock-face directions from the BGPS and geotracking, which, as was described earlier, refers to the ability to localize a target using the BGPS after the device speaks the initial "arrived" notice.
The difficulty stemmed from the participants' expectation that the BGPS heading function is based on a compass.
The participants were rotated between the use of the BGPS and the starting position on the carpet squares.
The BGPS, the focus of this study, has five major functions: (1) standard functions, (2) automatic routes, (3) manual routes, (4) points-of-interest files, and (5) virtual functions, as follows:
P3, aged 38, used a dog guide, had enough vision to use a telescope to read street signs and house numbers, had good mental mapping skills, generally ignored environmental cues and depended nearly exclusively on house numbers for wayfinding, solicited information when needed, and had been introduced briefly to BGPS as a participant in another study.
The paired trials (or sessions) consisted of one using BGPS and one using only natural and trained navigational skills.
Training was aimed at teaching the functions required of the BGPS that are required to help a user reorient herself when lost and to locate a given target house in a familiar neighborhood.
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