Firm conclusions about pathophysiologic mechanisms cannot be drawn from epidemiological studies alone; however, the current findings may reflect impaired renal tubular uptake, alterations in BHMT flux, and activation of key elements in energy and insulin homeostasis, with potential ramifications also to mitochondrial function and methyl group metabolism.
9] Nonstandard abbreviations: T2D, type 2 diabetes; IR, insulin resistance; TMAO, trimethylamine N-oxide; WENBIT, Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial; Hb A1c, glycated hemoglobin; HOMA2, updated homeostatic model assessment; BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; NRI, net reclassification improvement; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient; OR, odds ratio; BHMT, betaine-homocysteine 5-methyl transferase.
Following betaine supplementation, the activity of BHMT
increased in pigs fed diets which were either adequate (Emmert et al.
RFLP analysis was used to identify BHMT 742G>A (35), CBS 699C>T (22), PON1 163T>A, PON1 575A>G, RFC1 80G>A (32), TCII 776C>G, and TCII 67A>G (29).
Eleven SNPs (MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, CBS 699C>T, BHMT 742G>A, RFC1 80G>A, TCII 67A>G, TCII 776C>G, PON1 163T>A, and PON1 575A>G) and 1 insertion polymorphism (CBS 844ins68) are included.
While altered methylation subtypes such as MTR or BHMT
polymorphisms may not always display as elevated Hcys, this test will pick up the majority of methylation defects and results above 12 nmol/ml represent nearly all of the methylation defects, no matter whether they are genetic or acquired (nutrient intake).
Variants that cause BH4 to become depleted by constant efforts to mop up excess ammonia include MTHFR, MTR, BHMT, PEMT, and especially CBS.
Yucca, choline, TMG and digestive aids may be helpful when CBS and BHMT need to be supported.
If a patient has the C677T, MTR, or MTRR variants, supporting and stimulating a genetically normal BHMT
system will partialis reduce the adverse effects of these genetic variants.
The group also found an associative gene-gene interaction: significance increased in the BHMT
rs3733890 SNP when the data were stratified by preferential transmission of one particular MTHFR allele from parent to offspring.
RESULTS: Only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BHMT
were significantly associated in the overall data set; this significance was strongest when mothers took folate-containing nutritional supplements before conception.
334 ASTEC UNDERGROUND 807 ATLAS COPCO BHMT
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