We measured distance (m) to nearest road using the road coverages (BHNF
unpubl., CSP unpubl.) within ArcGIS.
The BHNF is located in the western portion of South Dakota and includes the Bear Lodge Mountains of northeastern Wyoming (Fig.
During spring 2007 and 2008, we completed ruffed grouse drumming surveys on the northern two-thirds of the BHNF (Hansen, 2009).
Using the structural form for each covariate that was most supported, we fit models to evaluate literature-based hypotheses on the relationship of drumming structure and adjacent vegetation characteristics with ruffed grouse selection of drumming sites in the BHNF.
Study area.--This study was conducted in the BHNF, located in western South Dakota (UTM 13N 574719-641489 E, 4809979-4932866 N) (Fig.
Ponderosa pine is found throughout the BHNF and is the most abundant tree species, dominating 83% of the landscape (USDA Forest Service, 2005).
Our decision to accept the current model is based on two anomalies (Jasper Burn and Black Elk Wilderness Area) within the BHNF vegetation layer, which may have affected the validation data and are furthered explained in the discussion.
2006 and 2007, we trapped northern flying squirrels along established transects throughout the northern BHNF and western BHNF, respectively.
We used another chi-square tests ([chi square]) to examine the association between nest type (cavity, dray) and nest tree size class (4 diam classes, 3 height classes); size classes were based on current BHNF management practices (USDA Forest Service, 2005).
Nest tree use versus availability.--Northern flying squirrels in the BHNF did not use nest sites randomly ([chi square] = 125.42, P < 0.001).
This information will assist managers in the BHNF by providing information on microhabitat resource use and also contribute to the limited knowledge of northern flying squirrel habitat use within an isolated portion of the flying squirrel's southern range.
2005, we trapped northern flying squirrels along established transects throughout the southeastern BHNF. Ten Tomahawk live traps (Model 201:40 X 13 x 13 cm, Tomahawk Live Trap Co., Tomahawk, WI.) were placed 50 m apart; this distance ensures at least four traps were in each northern flying squirrel's home range (Hough, 2008) and accounts for home range overlap between squirrels (Carey et al., 1991).