Using the structural form for each covariate that was most supported, we fit models to evaluate literature-based hypotheses on the relationship of drumming structure and adjacent vegetation characteristics with ruffed grouse selection of drumming sites in the BHNF.
Ruffed grouse in the BHNF selected drumming sites characterized by low visibility between 0.
Ruffed grouse selection of drumming sites in the BHNF was not related to characteristics of the drumming structure.
Our decision to accept the current model is based on two anomalies (Jasper Burn and Black Elk Wilderness Area) within the BHNF vegetation layer, which may have affected the validation data and are furthered explained in the discussion.
The RSF habitat model for northern flying squirrels in BHNF does not give an indication of presence or absence based on habitat characteristics at a site, but instead provides a management tool to identify areas of habitat suitability based on known locations.
Aspen-birch (2% of the landscape) was found to be important denning habitat for northern flying squirrels in BHNF (Hough, 2008).
We used another chi-square tests ([chi square]) to examine the association between nest type (cavity, dray) and nest tree size class (4 diam classes, 3 height classes); size classes were based on current BHNF management practices (USDA Forest Service, 2005).
Northern flying squirrels in the BHNF did not use nest sites randomly ([chi square] = 125.
Northern flying squirrels in the BHNF traveled farther between nests (159 m) than in Oregon (71 m; Martin and Anthony, 1999), but similar distances as in central Appalachians (164 m; Hackett and Pagels, 2003) and northwestern British Columbia (163 m; Cotton and Parker, 2000).
This information will assist managers in the BHNF by providing information on microhabitat resource use and also contribute to the limited knowledge of northern flying squirrel habitat use within an isolated portion of the flying squirrel's southern range.
The USFS has established structural classes based on canopy cover and dbh for BHNF (USDA Forest Service, 2005).
1993) and habitat use and availability patterns were similar (Thomas and Taylor, 1990) due to dominance (83%) of ponderosa pine in BHNF.