BKVNBeste Keeper Van Nederland (Dutch: Best Keeper Of Holland; soccer)
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While urine and serum testing are excellent screening methods for BK virus, the renal transplant biopsy continues to be the gold standard diagnostic test for the diagnosis of BKVN (Bohl & Brennan, 2007; Sawinski & Goral, 2014).
In a retrospective study to assess the use of fluoroquinolones as a prophylactic therapy for BKVN in patients receiving kidney transplants, Gabardi et al.
The thought process for using IVIG therapy for treatment of BKVN is that human immunglobulins may contain anti-BK virus antibodies as well as provide a degree of transferred protective immunity to the patient (Randhawa, Schonder, Shapiro, Farasati, & Huang, 2010.).
Successful treatment of BKVN is measured by the clearance of virus, the increase in the BK-specific antibody levels, and the preservation of renal function (Brennan et al, 2005; Hariharan et al., 2005).
Definitive diagnosis of BKVN requires a biopsy to be taken for histopathology to determine the severity of scarring, atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammation.
A potentially major breakthrough in the prevention and treatment of BKVN was suggested by a recent longitudinal serological study of kidney transplant recipients which demonstrated that BKV subtype I and subtype IV are serologically distinct using sensitive new methodologies [210].
However, not all studies have demonstrated a benefit [316, 317], and some argue that the addition of drug therapy in treatment of BKVN provides no benefit compared with the standard of care, that is, the reduction of immunosuppression alone [318].
The fluoroquinolones (FQ) are a class of antibiotics that have been used--in combination with immunosuppression reduction--in the treatment of BKVN and have been shown to have in vitro activity against BKV [324].
Proportions of Infiltrating Lymphocytes in BKVN andAR.
This study revealed that immunophenotyping would aid in differentiating BKVN from acute rejection.
BKV infection is common after renal transplant, leading to BKVN, which is increasingly an important cause of graft failure.
On the other hand, in comparison with stable allograft function group, we confirmed in our samples that every kind of lymphocytes is significantly higher in both BKVN and AR group.