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An increase in the intensity of the absorption at 512 and 550 nm observed for the case of individually mixed modified (Individual) sample as compared to blended (BLND) co-solvent modified composite sample film suggests a more efficient growth of P3HT crystals in the former.
For both the BLND and individual mixed films at 0.11[degrees] incidence angle, three diffraction peaks marked as (hOO) where, h = 1-3 corresponds to layered intra-chain P3HT orientation along a axis of crystallographic plane and (010) peak indexed the inter-chain [pi]-[pi] stacking orientation of P3HT backbone along [alpha]-axis of crystallographic plane (Fig.
An additional inference from the study of the [pi]-[pi] stacking (010) peak intensity also highlighted the better part played by the polythiophene backbone in individual mixed co-solvent modified sample to form superior [pi]-[pi] stacked domains as compared to the interchain stacking in BLND composite film [27] (inset of Fig.
Using the Scherrer formula, we could successfully work out the size of P3HT crystallites near the surface as 13.0 and 13.7 nm for BLND and individual mixed films, respectively, while in the bulk of the film, crystallite size was of the order of 12.0 and 12.33 nm, respectively for blended and individually mixed co-solvent modified films [28], Larger crystal size of crystallizable polymer in active layer produced via modified co-solvent addition method can also be vital for the charge transport, which may be a contributing feature for high photocurrent generation in the OSC [29],
Figure 4a and b depicts the topographical AFM image of individually mixed and BLND co-solvent modified films, respectively.
Adolescents in this study residing in intact (INT), single-parent (SP), or blended families with two adult care givers (BLND) were assessed to determine whether family composition is related to (1) parent-adolescent relationships, (2) DM1 treatment adherence, and (3) the adolescent's health status.
To ensure that the three groups (INT, SP, BLND) did not differ on key demographic variables, three analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted with family composition serving as the independent variable and adolescent's age, duration of DM1, and socioeconomic status (SES) serving as the dependent variables.
Chi-square analyses revealed a disproportionate number of African-American adolescents in the SP group compared to the INT and BLND family groups [[X.sup.2] (2, N=119) =14.00, p [is less than] .001].
TABLE 1 Demographic Variables by Family Composition Variables Family Composition Intact (INT) Single-Parent (SP) N 65 38 Age (years) 14.2 14.4 Race (%African-American) 10%(a) 42%(ab) Sex (% Female) 54% 63% Socioeconomic Status (SES) 45.9(cd) 40.1(c) Duration of Disease (years) 5.0 5.1 Variables Family Composition Blended (BLND) N 16 Age (years) 14.6 Race (%African-American) 13%(b) Sex (% Female) 56% Socioeconomic Status (SES) 39.6(d) Duration of Disease (years) 6.0 Note.
The latter group included both INT and BLND families.
Adolescent-reported scores on the SCI, TADS, and DRC were entered into three separate ANOVAs to determine differences in health-related functioning between adolescents from INT, SP, and BLND families.
Mother-reported scores on both the SCI (adherence) and TADS (diabetes adjustment) did not differ significantly across groups (INT, SP, BLND).