Lower 95% confidence bounds on the BMD ([(BMDL
).sub.s]) corresponding to extra risks of 1%, 5%, and 10% ([(BMDL
).sub.05], and [(BMDL
).sub.10], respectively) were also estimated.
Measurement Hill Linear Polynomial Power Admission SBP BMD 1.50 2.57 0.22 1.46 BMDL
1.42 1.57 0.07 1.42 AIC 1,840 1,838 1,840 1,838 Admission DBP BMD NC 2.71 NC 1.91 BMDL
NC 1.62 NC 1.43 AIC NC 1,698 NC 1,699 Maximum SBP BMD 1.46 2.50 0.15 1.45 BMDL
1.41 1.55 0.06 1.41 AIC 1,895 1,897 1,895 1,893 Maximum DBP BMD 1.50 2.95 0.15 1.47 BMDL
1.43 1.71 0.06 1.43 AIC 2,009 2,009 2,009 2,007 NC, no calculation.
(2002) group as minimum low-dose BMDL
at 5% LOAEL group as no IUI effect level UF 100 10 (30 Adopted NRC 10 (a)) value Basis of UF Minimum LOAEL to Sensitive Adopted NRC Sensitive NOAEL; sensitive subgroups value subgroups subgroups; data gaps RfD 0.07 0.7 (0.23 Adopted NRC 0.37 ([mu]g/kg/day) (b)) value Relative source 20% Not 60% 60% contribution calculated factor Adult drinking 0.49 (2 (c)) Not 15 6 (d) water value calculated ([mu]g/L) Infant drinking 0.43 (e) Not Not Not water value calculated calculated calculated ([mu]g/L) (4.3 (e)) (3 (f)) (a) One member of the NRC and SAC supported a UF of 30 (MA DEP 2006; NRC 2005).
The BMD and BMDL
concepts are other appropriate tools to better describe the uncertainty around the point of departure (POD).
Thus, almost all traditional RfDs are conservative in the sense that they are protective at >50% confidence of no more than 1% population incidence of effects, though a substantial fraction falls short of the 95% confidence that is often used as a threshold, as with the BMDL
(2) Margin of exposure (MOE) calculated by dividing the benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL
) for aflatoxins by AFB1 exposure.
When the correlations of dialysis duration with BMDF, BMDL
, iPTH, BGP, ALP and [[beta].sub.2] m were evaluated, there was low level but statistically significant negative correlation between dialysis duration and BMDF (r=-0.2, p<0.05), whereas, there were positive correlation between dialysis duration and PTH (r=0.3, p<0.05) and between dialysis duration and [[beta].sub.2] m (r=0.05, p<0.05) (Table 3).
Table 1 outlines toxicological reference values reported as Benchmark Dose Lower Limits (BMDLs
) for various neurobehavioural endpoints reported from the above-mentioned epidemiological studies.
However, other studies suggest that the ratio is closer to 1:1 ; therefore, the NHANES values may not be directly comparable to BMDL
recommended by NRC.
Conditional toxicity value (CTV) prediction errors based on 5-fold cross-validation for the RfD and associated NOAEL, BMD, or BMDL
. (A-D) Scatter plots of QSAR-predicted versus "observed" regulatory toxicity values, with the dotted lines showing the range encompassing 90% of the predictions.
The same concern is often raised regarding the benchmark dose (BMD) method (Crump, 1984), which requires setting of a benchmark risk (BMR) in order to estimate the lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose (BMDL
) (Crump, 1995).
which will be deployed during 2014 and 2015 in the Naval Base of Rota, as part of the BMDl
, according to the agreement reached between both governments in 2011 and signed in 2012.