Initial interviews with managers served to help flesh-out the broad contours of inequality for the various hierarchical levels within the typical Thai organization, and how the BoPWs often lived their working lives as a consequence.
We then formulated a more precise question protocol for the frontline BoPWs which focused on their working lives, their workloads, their salaries, subsistence issues and how, why, to what extent and with what effect they 'topped up' their official incomes to meet their needs.
'Organizational frontline manifestations' looks at the manner in which economic inequality affected the working lives of frontline BoPWs across our three Thai-based subsidiaries.
The taking on of simultaneous work/jobs among the BoPWs often led to chronic fatigue and on-the-job negligence.
Dealing with requests from clients meant understanding what they wanted, but according to both managers and BoPWs across the three companies, this was frequently not the case.
The prevalence, extent and (particularly) the nature of absenteeism, moonlighting, communication problems and staff appearance among the BoPWs were all influenced by factors extending beyond that of their low income levels.
In complementing this work, this study's contribution--to the best of our knowledge the first of its kind--connects the theory to date with micro-level learnings from organizational BoPWs. Against this backdrop we uncover how at ground-level the superior-subordinate relationship forms the core mechanism through which vertical collectivist Thai cultural orientation moderates (exacerbates/mitigates) economic inequality and its adverse effects.
Another involved communication problems, where BOPWs were often unable to understand correctly requests or directions as well as making themselves understood or dare to ask a superior for clarification (e.g., Farkas 2003).
At Ampar and Cestar, senior managers emphasized the long-term importance in retaining their BoPWs as the key to securing committed, on-brand engagement.