In the present study, we investigated which sequence of gene testing was optimal from a cost perspective and whether individual testing or panel testing was least expensive for groups of optional genes (BRAF
, RET, MET, HER2, KRAS).
Until now, there were no reimbursed drug treatments that offered clear benefits for these patients following surgery, and as a result, nearly half (44%) of those with BRAF
V600 mutated melanoma suffer a recurrence within a year after surgery, with the risk that the cancer progresses to an incurable state.
Georgios Antonios Margonis, M.D., Ph.D., from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, and colleagues conducted a cohort study to examine the prognostic association of BRAF
mutations with survival and recurrence independently and compared with other prognostic determinants.
A requirement for administration of BRAFi/MEKi is the identification of a BRAF
mutation that is routinely determined by direct sequencing of melanoma tissue samples, which may not represent the current somatic mutation status or tumor heterogeneity.
Available data regarding survival benefit of checkpoint inhibitors in patients based on BRAF
status and PD1 expression are contradictory.
gene plays an important role in protein synthesis functioning in the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway for cell division and differentiation, which also induces oncogenesis when mutated [12, 13].
Increasing evidence revealed that CRC patients with NRAS mutations had relatively favorable prognosis compared with those with KRAS or BRAF
There are controversial results on the correlation of BRAF
mutation and age in the pediatric literature.
RAF kinases are of three types- A-RAF, B-RAF (BRAF
), and C-RAF out of which BRAF
is the most potent activator of the MAP kinase pathway.
Consequently, tumors with mutated KRAS and probably BRAF
are resistant to anti-EGFR therapy .
In the case of colorectal cancer (CRC) the association of mucinous/serrated carcinomas with BRAF
mutations is well known and we have shown that such association can be extended to the group of "BRAF-mutated-like" tumors, characterized by a specific genomic signature .