Pitt and Khandaker  "Household and Intra household Impact of the Grameen Bank and Similar Targeted Credit Programs in Bangladesh" assessed the impact of microcredit borrowers of BRAC, BRDB
and Grameen Bank and observed the positive impact of the program on women's employment, total per capita weekly expenditure and women's non-land assets.
One is in the public sector (BRDB); another is an NGO (BRAC), and the third one (GB) is an independent poverty-focused development bank, which offers a limited range of integrated services centred on credit [See Chowdhury (1990) and Maloney and Ahmed (1988)].
For instance, although like GB, BRDB gives importance to population-education and adult education as to economic goals, its programme activities are centred around the formation of Village Women's Co-operatives, modelled after the Comilla Approach.
All in all, the female loan programmes of GB, BRAC, and BRDB apply a holistic approach in order to meet the female participants' multiple needs.
Since family planning is actively and routinely promoted in loan group meetings, loan workshops, and training sessions, the primary group influence may have been a critical mechanism in promoting fertility regulation among the loan recipients of GB, BRAC, and BRDB.
All these show how the income-generating programmes of GB, BRAC, and BRDB can create an institutional context that can bolster both the social power of primary group and social institution to bear on matters of independent decisionmaking fertility, fertility regulation, or reproductive attitude and behaviour.
Data collected from two different samples-one drawn from the female recipients of collateral-free loans of the GB, BRAC, and BRDB (experimental group) and another from a comparable group of non-recipients of any institutionally-based loan benefits in the corresponding neighbouring areas--have been utilised to test the hypothesis that participation in income-generating activities by the rural poor women is likely to have a favourable effect on their independent household decision-makings as well as fertility and fertility behaviour.
The programme beneficiaries were randomly selected from the rural areas covered by the loan programmes of GB, BRAC, and BRDB. The samples were representative of the borrowers as of December 31, 1990.