The BRMA also noted that environmental conditions such as exposure to sunlight and coastal climates, as well as poor storage and infrequent use, accelerate the tire aging process.
The BRMA noted that aging may be identified by small cracks in the tire sidewall, but that aging "may not exhibit any external indications and, since there is no nondestructive test to assess the serviceability of a tyre, even an inspection carried out by a tyre expert may not reveal the extent of any deterioration.
Sean Kane, president of Safety Research and Strategies, obtained the BRMA recommendation--which was never published--and submitted it to NHTSA in September 2003, along with a list of aged-tire cases in the United States and a request to consider requiring expiration dates on tires.
In addition to small groups of companies trying to advance the industry, such as the BRMA
pilot initiative, there are many individual efforts.
In total, 57 studies using the BRMAS and an additional 11 articles using a modified version of the BRMAS were reviewed (N = 68).
Table 1 Sample Reliability Coefficients Reported in Selected Studies Using BRMAS Reliability Authors/Year Journal Coefficient Bryant, Mealey, Journal of Psychology .
The instrument comprised: (a) a revised BRMAS (13 items, with 11 having a 7-point Likert scale, with responses ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree," and 2 items relating to the perceived proportion of women who lie about being raped, on a 5-point Likert scale, with responses ranging from "none" to "all.
The BRMAS includes questions with a wide range in social acceptability and attitudes towards women in general and rape victims.
Scores on the BRMAS were summed across all 13 items with higher scores reflecting greater acceptance of myths about rape.