Algee-Hewitt (2016) has demonstrated how, using craniometrics, it is possible to produce the individual proportions of population membership that have been shown, with genetics, to be informative of admixture patterns and represent estimates of biogeographic ancestry for the major populations in the United States, including Hispanics with origins in Mexico and other Latin American countries (Bryc et al.
These global samples were used as parental or donor populations to approximate the ancestral variation expected for contemporary persons of Latin American origin (Bryc et al.
These data were produced under a three major cluster solution, which corresponds to the trihybrid continental ancestry model that is common among genetic studies of Latin American populations, including Hispanic persons of largely Mexican descent (Bryc et al.
A review of these data finds that there are three times more Hispanic-labeled individuals of Mexican birth, or ascribed Mexican identity, than there are Hispanic-labeled individuals originating from all other Latin American countries, including those areas where an alternative trihybrid model would more accurately represent the ancestral diversity of the admixed populations, that is, from places in the Caribbean, like Cuba or Puerto Rico (Bryc et al.
A Colombian Mestizo exhibited the D4h3a haplotype, though it was simply identified as haplogroup D (Bryc, et al.
2007), Paleo-Colombian Checua (CHI-08), Colombians (Bryc, et al.
In Colombia, D4h3a was detected in a Paleo-Colombian Checua (this study, Hap.1) and in a Mestizo: Haplotype 5, nevertheless it was simply classified as haplogroup D (Bryc, et al.
2010), and nuclear-SNPs microarrays or Ancestry Informative Markers-AIMs (Bryc, et al.