Looking at the latter, it can be noted that the highest eEGR rates are applied at low speeds and medium-high loads, resulting in a maximum BSFC
reduction of 10 g/kWh, that is, about 4% (compare Figure 13b with Figure 14b).
The variation of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC
) at different loads is shown in Figure 11.
Parameter Symbol Unit Value Range R nmi 900 Payload P # 100 Crew Cr # 5 Cruise Mach M -- 0.5 Altitude h ft 25000 Reference surface [S.sub.ref] [m.sup.2] 326.03 Total span b m 32.45 Total length l m 27.85 Aerodynamic efficiency [(L/D).sub.C] -- 19.0 (cruise) Fuel consumption BSFC
g/(kWh) 211.0 (cruise) Thermal chain efficiency [[eta].sup.th.sub.ch] -- 0.35 (cruise) Propeller efficiency [[eta].sub.p] -- 0.90 (cruise) Fuel specific energy [H.sub.f] kWh/kg 12.08 Table 2: Hybrid electric chain relevant parameters.
Nomenclature B20: Diesel+ 80%, biodiesel from WCO 20% by volume B40: Diesel+ 60%, biodiesel from WCO 40% by volume BSFC
: Brake specific fuel consumption BTE: Brake thermal efficiency CMD: Court mean diameter CN: Cetane number ULSD: Ultralow sulfur diesel WCO: Waste cooking oil.
Further, the HC, CO and smoke emissions increases with increasing antioxidant concentration whereas there is no significant variation in BTE and BSFC
Table I: The Accuracies of measurements and the Uncertainties in the calculated results Measurements Accuracy Speed [+ or -] 2 rpm Temperature [+ or -] 1oC CO [+ or -] 0.03 % CO2 [+ or -] 0.5 % NO [+ or -] 50 ppm HC [+ or -] 10 ppm Opacity [+ or -] 0.1 % Calculated Uncertainty results Brake power [+ or -] 2.50 % BSFC
[+ or -] 2.64 % Pressure [+ or -] 1 bar Table II: Properties of the Fuel and Additive * Properties No-2 Diesel CNSL Acetone Kinematic Viscosity [cSt] 2.82 29.77 0.46 Density [kg/[m.sup.3]] 840 884 791 Lower Heating Value [MJ/kg] 42.3 39.4 28.8 Cetane Number 46 54 -- Flash Point 70 157 -20 [[degrees]C] Note: * Producers data.
To take into account the effect of engine size on its maximum bsfc
, the efficiency maps of Fig.
is about 0.21 kg/kW hr for 100% diesel and 0.19 kg/kW hr for blend B20 at brake power of 5.54 kW.
Figure 13 clearly shows that the 2-injection pattern could be used to obtain a pollutant emissions reduction, especially in particulate matter, in case an increase in noise levels was acceptable (BSFC
remains almost constant with respect to reference condition).
The Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC
) maps were generated and the load limits for each of the combustion modes were determined.
In this study, we used formulae of Bu Shen Fang Chuan (BSFC
) and Bu Shen Yi Qi (BSYQ) as add-on treatments to prevent asthma exacerbation.
For the rule-based control category, "if-else-then" strategies were designed by investigating the performance maps of key components (engine BSFC
map and motor efficiency map) .