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Observations were initiated 1 wk after Rozol[R] application based on the time course of adverse effects for chlorophacinone (Whisson and Salmon, 2009; Vyas et al, 2012) and no observations were made on days 12-15 and after day 17 post application because of weather conditions that restricted above ground BTPD activity.
We used 'perched on ground without prey' to describe FEHAs that perched on the ground where no above ground BTPD activity was observed within ~90 m of the hawks.
Eighteen of 22 BTPD carcasses placed in the three subcolonies were removed during the night within 24 h of placement, presumably by mammalian scavengers.
Surface BTPD availability is affected by meteorological factors including temperature, wind velocity, and precipitation (Tileston and Lechleitner, 1966; Lehmer et al., 2003).
The study was conducted from May-July 2005 on nine BTPD colonies in north-central Montana (Fig.
Fleas were collected from BTPD burrows using methods described by Jones and Britten4.
hirsuta on nine BTPD colonies at the onset of a widespread plague outbreak.
Consistent with our results, Tripp et al (35) found an increase in the number of fleas on BTPD colonies and an increase in the number of Y.
Estimating historical distribution.--A historical record was defined as a record of a BTPD population that was recorded before 2000, when this inventory began.
Estimating current distribution.-Current distribution was defined as the BTPD population in Texas between 2002 and 2004, when the data was ground-truthed (directly verified remotely sensed information).
The edit layer was adjusted as needed, using the improving knowledge of BTPD signature variants as a guide.
Comparing historical and current distributions.--A layer of points was created from historical BTPD records, digitizing versions of historical range maps of the BTPD in Texas (Bailey 1905; Cottam & Caroline 1965; Cheatheam 1977) and merging the versions into one polygon.
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- BTP II