As for Question 14, which is related to the cost of the hearing aid, it was adapted to: "Does spending money on batteries and travel (tickets, meals) for monitoring the hearing aid adaptation seem reasonable to you?", since subjects received the hearing aid free of charge from BUHS
This is an important finding when considering the wide range of negative consequences associated with bullying in elementary school (Buhs
et al., 2006; Cook et al., 2010; Glew et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2015; Klomek et al., 2009; Wolke et al., 2014).
Because they do poorly they become stressed (Buhs
, Ladd, & Herald, 2001).
Conduct engagement which relates to both antisocial prosocial behaviours and compliance with classroom rules (Gest, Welsh & Domitrovich, 2005; Miles & Stipek, 2006; Trzesniewski, Moffitt, Caspi, Taylor & Maughan, 2006) and involvement in learning which relates to activities such as on-task behaviours (Rimm-Kaufman, La Paro, Downer & Pianta, 2005), effort, attention, self-direction, and persistence in the classroom (Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Ladd, Birch & Buhs
, 1999; Normandeau & Guay, 1998).
Children's attention is an important component of children's cognitive performance (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004; Ladd, Birch, & Buhs
, 1999) and can be influenced by teacher behaviors (Gianvecchio & French, 2002; Heward, Courson, & Narayan, 1989; Marks, 2000; McWilliam, Scarborough, & Kim, 2003).
El estatus sociometrico es considerado uno de los indicadores de ajuste en la adolescencia mas ampliamente reconocido, por su relacion con el ajuste escolar y con los problemas de conducta (Buhs
& Ladd, 2001; Newcomb, Bukowski & Pattee, 1993; Prinstein & La Greca, 2004; Stormshak et al., 1999).
Especially the peer relations in preschool period affect children's development both in this period and subsequent years to come (Buhs
&Ladd, 2001; Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman, 1996, 1997).
Research of sociometric status in the school setting has shown it to be a variable that is directly related to school adaptation, at the academic, social, and affective levels (Buhs
, Ladd, & Herald, 2006; Bukowski, Newcomb, & Hartup, 1998; Diaz-Aguado, 2006; Dodge, Coie, Pettit, & Price, 1990; Ladd, Herald-Brown, & Reiser, 2008; McElhaney, Antonishak, & Allen, 2008; Ortega & Mora-Merchan, 2008; Ortiz, Aguirrezabala, Apodaka, Etxebarria, & Lopez, 2002).
Children have a difficult time outgrowing the label of not being liked, and this reputation can stay with them through adolescence (Buhs
, Ladd, & Herald, 2006).
Ladd, Birch y Buhs
(1999) identifican cuatro signos de un buen aprendizaje socioemocional en la infancia: a) interacciones positivas con los profesores; b) representaciones positivas de si mismo derivadas de buenas relaciones de apego; c) conocimientos de las emociones; y d) habilidad para regular las emociones.