Although the BVRT
in humans is also correlated strongly with changes in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subregion (Brickman et al.
We observed significant music intervention main effect and music intervention * time interaction on the scores of Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and the score of Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT).
In addition, increased BVRT scores, which was a well-established neurodiagnostic instrument to assess visuospatial [50, 51], were also observed though music intervention.
Then, the performance on IQ and BVRT tasks was compared between those groups.
There were significant differences between groups in both the BVRT copy and memory tasks (Table 1 and Fig.
By summing up the standardized t scores (mean, 50; standard deviation, 10) of the relevant test measures explained above with some required sign-flipping so that all the scores indicated better performance when they were higher, we evaluated the following three composite measures for the specific cognitive function domains: (1) processing speed composite, which included TMT-A and SDMT; (2) executive function composite, which included FAB, WFT, and TMT-B; and (3) working memory composite, which included SS, BVRT
, and AVLT.
(Sivan, 1992) was used to assess visual recall ('Immediate visual memory'), and perceptual --copying ability ('Visual performance').
Table 2 shows significant differences in the scores of younger and older adults on BVRT
total scores and errors.
(1995) found that [Epsilon] 4 carriers showed worse performance on the BVRT
and had significantly reduced asymmetry between the right and left hippocampi.
Following the same procedure used for the BVRT
we administered two more visual memory tasks (stimulus images courtesy of Michael J.
Adjusted mean scores on the BVRT
were 7.5 and 7.7, respectively.
Role of sex appeared significant for most of the tests, except BVRT
(p = 0.2) and FTT (p = 0.4): Men had a 1.7-2.3 risk to score low, compared to women.