Dowsey, "Treatment of acute bronchospasm with beta-adrenergic agonist aerosols delivered by a nasal bilevel positive airway pressure
circuit," Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol.
Mild cases may be managed with administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, and nebulized bronchodilator whereas those with hemodynamic instability or unresponsive hypoxemia will require vasopressor and noninvasive or invasive ventilation.[sup],, Noninvasive ventilation as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure
(BiPAP) has been highly beneficial in improving cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
According to an FDA statement, the device is indicated for adults aged 22 years and older with moderate to severe OSA "who have been confirmed to fail or cannot tolerate positive airway pressure (PAP) treatments," such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure
(BPAP) machines, "and who do not have a complete concentric collapse (as seen during drug induced sleep endoscopy) at the soft palate level."
Juan has been confined in a purposely-built wheelchair and has been breathing through a Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure
machine (that helps him breathe more easily).
Effects of conventional physiotherapy, continuous positive airway pressure and non-invasive ventilatory support with bilevel positive airway pressure
after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Although not a first-line therapy, bilevel positive airway pressure
(BiPAP), which delivers both inspiratory and expiratory pressure via a face device, can be tried in patients unable to tolerate CPAP.
Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) device was given to supine-dependent and/or rapid-eye-movement-(REM-) dependent patients, and bilevel positive airway pressure
(BiPAP) device was given to patients with pressure above 12 cm [H.sub.2]O in automatic PAP titration, chronic obstructive lung disease, and/or obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and (continuous positive airway pressure) CPAP was given to other patients.