In this regard, my teacher education colleagues and I visited major project centers including the Educational Development Center in Massachusetts, the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
in Colorado, the Lawrence Hall of Science in California, and the Engineering Concepts Curriculum Project in New York.
The National Science Foundation's Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
reintroduced Darwin and evolution into the curriculum and jump-started the creationists into reinventing their beliefs as "creation science" and demanding they be taught side by side with "evolution science."
The characteristics of Nominal [right arrow] Functional [right arrow] Structural [right arrow] Multidimensional biological literacy from 1994 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
are defined and their relationships discussed in a lucid manner that certainly helped me to view my introductory through senior students, as well as my own scientific literacy, from a fresh perspective.
(After all, the Russians were clearly ahead of us.) The results were an "alphabet soup" of curriculum materials: SAPA (Science - A Process Approach, elementary science), ISCS (Integrated Science Curriculum Study, junior high), ESCP (Earth Science Curriculum Program, junior high), BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
, high school), and so on.
They are also asked to design and complete simple investigations, use observations to collect data, develop explanations based on collected data, consider alternative explanations, and communicate findings to other classmates (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
[BSCS], 1994; Layman, 1996; NRC, 1996).
The indicators are based upon the "5E" model of inquiry (CSDE, 2001a) described by Lawson (1995) and adopted from Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
(1992) 5E model (Trowbridge & Bybee, 1990).