identifies four hitherto common approaches to Lukan wealth ethics: the bivocational
, interim, literary, and personalist.
These are defined as missionaries who have served overseas for more than four years, and include both traditional and bivocational
Other denominations have found it necessary to ordain non-stipendiary or bivocational
ministers: those whose income derives from other sources, like a pension, private income or "tent" ministers whose income, like Paul's, came from other sources than the congregation.
What had turned Schweitzer's life from its initially already remarkable and distinguished bivocational
academic and musical career path was an experience he'd had more than a decade earlier, when at his parents' home for summer vacation, in the Lutheran parsonage in the little village of Gunsbach in the Voges Mountains near Strasbourg, where his father served as pastor.
Furthermore, he draws together several common characteristics of these Baptist sects: exclusive reliance on the King James Version; Landmark convictions regarding Baptist origins; a soteriology that attempts to mediate between predestination and free will; bivocational
clergy who lack theological training; an antimission spirit; simple, egalitarian worship; decentralized authority; traditional sex roles; rural origins and membership; and stable growth at home but losses through migration.
Both, for instance, practiced congregational autonomy, depended heavily on bivocational
pastors, engaged in a lively, emotional style of worship, and slowly yielded to a concerted push by better educated urbanites to impose centralized control over denominational matters and to replace the folk religion of the rural masses with the decorum of "bourgeois spirituality.
After his ordination to the gospel ministry in 1853, he often served as a bivocational
pastors who had little or no educational training for the ministry often served the Baptist and Methodist churches the poor attended.
North American workers" here includes long-term missionaries (expected to serve more than four years) plus middle-termers (expected to serve from one to four years), but does not include bivocational
associates or nonresidential missionaries--following the pattern given in the summary statistics in MH, pp.
occupations kept them close to the soil and to the people.
During our short time together, she transformed me from a tentmaking skeptic into a convinced supporter of bivocational