In the Treaty of 30 September 1854, the Bois Forte band of Chippewa ceded large amounts of territory, including what would become the entire BWCAW, to the federal government.
Four members of the Bois Forte band were cited for violation of federal regulations banning the use of motors and motorized vehicles to reach off-reservation fishing areas within BWCAW.
A federal magistrate in Duluth rejected the treaty-based defenses raised by Gotchnik and the remaining codefendant and ruled that the BWCAW Act does not infringe in any meaningful way on their usufructuary rights under the treaty (U.
It rejected defense arguments that treaty rights, including a right of access to the BWCAW, should be interpreted to allow the use of modern methods of transportation such as motorized vehicles.
The 8th Circuit decision incorrectly considered congressional intent; even if congressional intent is relevant, the plain language of the BWCAW Act shows that Congress did not intend the restrictions on motors to apply to hunting, fishing, and gathering by tribal members in the ceded territory.
Another alternative was suggested by Grigal and Ohmann (1975), who found that upland white cedar forests in the BWCAW were not edaphically determined, but rather occupied areas that had not burned for longer time periods that any other forest type.
1993), studies of this sort have not been accomplished in the BWCAW.
hundreds to thousands of hectares) in the BWCAW depend on the interaction between large, intense fires and topographical features such as lakes.
The main objective of this study was to examine the relationships between spatial patchiness, spatial scale, and canopy succession in the southern-boreal forest of the BWCAW and secondarily to evaluate under what conditions any of the five models of successional direction are valid.
a snowmobile trail on the perimeter of the BWCAW, high above a
EIS that more thoroughly considered the sound effects in the BWCAW,
Record of Decision, BWCAW
Non-native Invasive Plant Management Project (2013) (listing information about projects that manage the resources and uses in the Superior National Forest).