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Under normal circumstances, the threshold chloride content typically varies from 0.2 to 0.5 per cent by weight of cement [3, 4].
and TWRL [23,24] reported the rapid penetration of chloride ions as the drying ratio increases; however, they showed relatively high surface chloride concentration, ranged from 1.66 to 4.42% by weight of cement. The long-term exposure to the chloride environment may result in further accumulation of chloride ions at the surface, induced by salt crystallization by drying.
The three numbers after them indicate the content of calcium stearate in the concrete, where 0.25 means that the calcium stearate content in each 1 [m.sup.3] of concrete was 0.25% by weight of cement. The last two numbers of the code represent the quality of concrete, namely, "20" for 20 MPa concrete, "30" for 30 MPa concrete, and "40" for 40 MPa concrete.
Alaettin Kilic and Cengiz Duran Atis in 2002 [1] had reported that structural lightweight concrete with basic pumice used as lightweight aggregate with and without admixtures gives compressive strength up to 43 MPa and tensile strength up to 8.9 MPa by the use of silica fumes up to 10% by weight of cement. The lightweight scoria aggregates can be utilized to reduce the earthquake acceleration by producing structural lightweight aggregates.
Under some conditions, a chloride content of as little as 0.15% by weight of cement is sufficient to initiate corrosion of embedded steel in concrete, in the presence of oxygen and moisture (ACI 222R-01 [10]).
The dust-free preparations have firm, powder-like consistency for optimum wettability in cement-based mixtures, and are dosed at 3-6 percent by weight of cement. "Corasol pigments are formulated for easier addition to both dry mix or hydrated matrices with reduced dusting compared to pure carbon black," notes Dr.
Hereinto, the amount of the resulting copolymer solution is 3.0% by weight of cement (bwoc).
Curing Dosage of Dispersant Compressive strength (MPa) temperature SSS/FA/AM (wt%, BWOC) ([degrees]C (wt%, BWOC) 24h 48h 1 0 22.5 25.7 90 2 0.3 20.4 21.1 3 0.3 19.1 21.0 1 0 26.8 24.7 120 2 0.3 23.7 20.9 3 0.3 23.2 19.5 1 0 28.5 23.1 140 2 0.3 25.3 19.6 3 0.3 24.9 17.3 Note: BWOC means "by weight of cement." The dispersant was SXY-2 (Chengdu Chuanfeng Chemical Engineering Co., Ltd., Sichuan, China), that is, a condensation copolymer of acetone and formaldehyde.
They studied the effect of admixture (PEG 400) on compressive strength and split tensile strength by varying the percentage of PEG by weight of cement from 0% to 2% both for M20 and M40 mixes.
It can be concluded that sieved only OPA can be used as a cement replacement at an optimum level of 25% by weight of cement. Even a 35% replacement can be used in producing semi-structural components since it exhibited properties near to that of the control mix.
The first threshold value has a 0.4 percent chloride concentration by weight of cement, which is the lowest amount to initiate corrosion of the strands.