C3AC3 Activator Fragment
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C3a expressed in the central nervous system protects against LPS-induced shock.
The proinflammatory mediators C3a and C5a are essential for liver regeneration.
lanceolatus Venom Generates C4a and C5a and TCC in NHS but Reduces C3a. To establish whether the observed reduction C-activity resulted from inhibition or activation (resulting in consumption) of the Complement cascade by the venom, the presence of anaphylatoxins and terminal Complement complex (TCC) in venom-treated NHS samples was investigated.
Also, the binding capacity depends on the type of the calcium aluminate hydration products such as C3A, [C.sub.4]AF, and [C.sub.12][A.sub.7] [4].
White solid; yield: 74%; mp: 149-150[degrees]C; IR (KBr, [v.sub.max], [cm.sup.-1]): 3468.26 (NH), 2935.12 (CH aliphatic), 2214.8 (CN), 1699.82 (C=O), and 1548.87, 1455.74 (C=C aromatic); [sup.1]H NMR ([delta], ppm, CD[Cl.sub.3]): 1.818-1.967 (m, 8H, H5-6, H3'-4') 2.569, 2.614 (m, 4H, H4, H7), 2.533 (t, 2H, H2'), 3.433 (t, 2H, H5'), and 9.277 (s, 1H, NH); [sup.13]C NMR ([delta], ppm, CD[Cl.sub.3]): 22.115, 23.065, 23.74, 23.885, 23.954, 31.942, 32.946, 34.794 (C4-7, C2'-5'), 92.316 (C3), 114.814 (CN), 128.083 (C7a), 130.689 (C3a), 147.507 (C2), and 169.829 (C=O amide); and DART-TOF-MS (m/z): 341.03 [M + H]+; anal.
ABMR is mediated by the classical pathway cleavage of C3 into C3b and C3a and the downstream formation of the membrane-attack complex, sC5b-9.
In addition, astrocytes are stimulated by inflammatory signals and secrete C3 that is cleaved into C3b and C3a. Complement peptide C3a mediates recruitment of peripheral immune cells to the brain [41].
Afterwards, the Fc[epsilon]R and the anaphylatoxin receptors (C5aR and C3aR), which bind with IgE, C5a, and C3a, respectively, the coactivation of the coagulation, and the kinin-kallikrein systems participate in the inflammation cascade [13].