C3PAClarion 3rd Party Association (programmers)
C3PAClimbing Conservancy of Central Pennsylvania
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Thus the C3PA model in itself tells us nothing about whether exclusive dealing is efficiency-based or anticompetitive.
As noted above, the C3PA can't ask whether the buyer is hurt (or it gives a facile negative answer); nor can the modified three-party model above or the Aghion-Bolton model.
3) As a result, if such unsuccessful entry incurs even a small sunk cost, it will not happen, but I follow the C3PA here in assuming no such sunk cost.