During the learning treatment stage, the students in the CAEG group were asked to individually complete the computer animated units in the computer classroom.
The mean gain from pretest to posttest for the CAEG group was 33.
05) between the CAEG and PAG groups after the experiment.
Data suggested that uses of the number-sense-based method increased much more for students in the CAEG (35.
The most important finding was that students in the CAEG group that received self-directed learning computer-animated number sense activities performed better on a number sense assessment than students in the PAG group who read a paper-version activities based on the same content as the computer-animated activities.
The students in the CAEG group performed better on number sense than students in the PAG group because students in the CAEG group have developed better conceptual understanding on number and operations under animated-based learning environment that included clearer words and pictures than the paper-version group mode.
Appendix 1 The self-learning process for two groups Schedule for sequences Class period CAEG PAG L1: Decimal problems 1 Animated A1 PV A1 L2: Calculator & Estimation 1 Animated A2 PV A2 L3: Comparing fractions 1 Animated A3 PV A3 L4: 1/2 as a benchmark 1 Animated A4 PV A4 L5: Estimation & Measurement 1 Animated A5 PV A5 L6: Fraction problems 1 Animated A6 PV A6 L7: Fraction & Decimal 1 Animated A7 PV A7 Note.