specifically greenhouse gas pollution, is emitted from CAFOs
. Part IV
Some involve wonk-speak, such as "CAFO
," an acronym for "concentrated animal feeding operation." (The name itself is less upsetting than the inhumane reality.) Other terms, such as "fecal marinade" -- a reference to what one interview subject calls the pink "hog lagoons" that dot the countryside where pork is produced, and where lakes of animal waste bake in the sun -- are simply disgusting.
Due to the size and density of CAFOs
, workers maybe exposed to additional health and safety risks such as high levels of noxious gases (e.g., ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide), agricultural dusts, and elevated noise levels [5, 14, 18-22].
Agricultural emissions, except for CAFOs
, are primarily nonpoint emissions because they come from diffuse sources, making them costly to measure.
Steve and NCEJN began conducting CBPR to document the disproportionate health impacts of CAFOs
on communities of color and low-income communities in North Carolina (Wing et al.
He found that some of the dye he injected in a former well on private property near the concentrated animal feeding operations, or CAFOs
(as the barns are called), traveled five miles downstream to a cave that's a hibernaculum for gray bats, one of three endangered bat species in the area.
(34) To achieve these levels, most animal products in the developed world are now produced in factory-style systems, referred to as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs
) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
(18) Small, family-owned and operated farms began to transition into factory farms, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations ("CAFOs
"), at the end of World War II when agricultural scientists worried about the supply of food for its citizens.
If the DGAC had really told us the truth about America's red-meat horror show (95 percent of our red meat comes from these Confined Animal Feeding Operations or CAFOs
), we'd be having a conversation about how we can get rid of factory farms.
The case is important for agriculture because many agricultural operations generate air emissions, particularly CAFOs
which discharge substances such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and volatile organic chemicals and they may seep into the ground.
Several food safety, environmental and public health groups have filed separate lawsuits charging that the Environmental Protection Agency is in violation of the Administrative Procedure Act because it has failed to respond in a timely fashion to earlier petitions calling for agency to regulate air pollution emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs