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CAKUTCongenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
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The study performed on 45 children with ESRF in a single tertiary care center reports that in our country there is preference for CAPD over hemodialysis mostly in cases below 5 years of age/weighing less than 15 kg (78%) as also seen in other studies.6-8 The common causes of ESRF in our patients were seen to be CAKUT (54%) followed by glomerular diseases (20%) which was similar to the results presented by Sinha and colleagues.9 In contrast Lee K et al observed chronic glomerulonephritis in majority of patients (87.7%) followed by CAKUT (8.8%).10 According to the annual report of North American Pediatric Renal Trials Collaborative Studies (2011)11 and Gonzalez et al,12 CAKUT was the leading cause of ESRF in 35.2% and 28.3% subjects respectively.
Differently from literature, we aimed to evaluate the neurodevelopment of children who had CAKUT without ESRD by using the Bayley-III test.
In our study, the most common primary diagnoses for patients who received kidney transplantation were CAKUT, which were found in 32.8% of patients followed by familial nephrotic syndrome in 20.0% and polycystic kidney disease in 18.5%.
Kidney diseases including urinary tract infections, congenital anomalies of kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) and abnormal renal functional status (decreased eGFR) are under reported in malnourished children.
However, recent evidence suggests that many patients with milder forms of CAKUT may progress to ESRD during adulthood, peaking in the fourth decade of life (15).
It should also be pointed that very few data about the role of chemokines in CAKUT were provided by clinical studies and the majority of them evaluated ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Indeed, we believe that the evaluation of these inflammatory mediators might help the management of CAKUT. The aim of this paper is to revise general aspects of cytokines and the link between cytokines, CAKUT, and CKD by including experimental and clinical studies.
Renal cystic diseases (RCDs) and congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) comprise a group of metanephric and ampullary bud misadventures and acquired lesions that have captured the interest and challenged the imagination of physicians for centuries.
The ability to estimate bladder capacity in children can be an important nephrology nursing skill, particularly with the high prevalence of bladder dysfunction related to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and hereditary disease.
In the United States (US) and Europe, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and inherited nephropathies are the major causes of CKD among youngest ESKD groups [4].
Etiology of chronic kidney disease in children * Etiology CKD (% range) ESRD (% range) CAKUT 48-59% 34-43% GN 5-14% 15-29% HN 10-19% 12-22% HUS 2-6% 2-6% Cystic 5-9% 6-12% Ischemic 2-4% 2% Rare causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) include congenital nephrotic syndrome, metabolic diseases, and cystinosis.