Cyber attacks--now evolving beyond mere hacking or denial of service--are becoming more sophisticated and may be used to intentionally disrupt operations at the combined air and space operations center (CAOC
Meanwhile, the NATO Combined Air Operations Centers (CAOC
)12 in the Southern region would execute the air operation with the resident "lower" half of the plans division, producing the master air operations plan and ATO, while executing the ATO with the operations division.
However, the combined air and space operations center (CAOC
) may view those same activities, from the operational level, as decentralized execution.
(21.) Mark Hewish, "Out of CAOCs
Comes Order," Jane's International Defense Review (May 2003), p.
Having said that though, let me give you just an anecdote that goes back to my experience running the CAOC
during the Bosnia operations.
The crew received a tasking from the CAOC
(Combined Air Operations Center) to "respond to troops in contact." There was a humvee taking .re from a ridgeline in northeast Afghanistan, and there was no qualified joint terminal attack controller (JTAC) present to clear the B-1 crew to release weapons--he was 15 minutes away.
The JEFX command air operations center, or CAOC
, at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev., became the test bed fur several new technologies that Hobbins said will help "transform" the way air operations are planned and implemented.
Some senior officials contend that forces made a "seamless transition" from the US-led Odyssey Dawn to the NATO-led Unified Protector, but others involved in the operation dispute this claim, asserting that "momentum was lost during the transition to NATO control." (49) Indeed, contending with the deficient facilities of the combined air operations center (CAOC
) alone would have made the transition anything but seamless.
Details as simple as knowing seating arrangements in the Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC
) can slice minutes off response times.
On average, more than a dozen uniformed space experts reside in CAOC
divisions that are responsible for developing air and space strategies, mastering air attack plans and air tasking orders, and assisting with execution and effects assessment.
In addition, because of the Navy's lack of a compatible command and control system that would enable receipt of the document electronically, the daily air tasking order (ATO) generated by the Air Force-dominated combined air operations center (CAOC
) in Saudi Arabia had to be placed aboard two S-3 aircraft in hardcopy each day and flown to the six participating carriers so that the next day's air wing flight schedules could be written.
Two hardware and software elements form the ACCS: the ARS (Air control centre, RAP production centre and Sensor fusion post) and the CAOC
(Combined Air Operations Centre).