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CARIFSCanadian Acute Respiratory Illness Flu Scale (questionnaire)
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Initial construct validity was determined for the CARIFS by using convergent validity testing using two different approaches.
The second approach, used by a different investigator (Shepperd et al., 2004), also tested CARIFS construct validity similarly using physicians, nurses, and parents; however, only the VAS was used by three groups of participants (general practitioners, nurses, and parents).
For the CARIFS, it was hypothesized that the child's severity of illness would diminish over time based on the typical course of ARI, thereby setting up the perfect opportunity to measure responsiveness to change.
The primary strength of the CARIFS is that it was guided by the Kirshner and Guyatt (1985) process for assessing health indices.
No standard instructions for the administration of the CARIFS have been published for either the research or clinical settings.
As discussed earlier, the total score for the CARIFS is obtained by either summing all 18 items or imputed by calculating the mean of all applicable items and multiplying by 18 (Jacobs et al., 2001).
Several forms of reliability testing were performed on the CARIFS. An instrument is considered reliable if it consistently measures the same attribute repeatedly over time (Waltz et al, 2017).
Although several forms of validity testing were performed on the CARIFS, questions of validity remain.
The stated objective of the CARIFS is to measure disease severity in children with ARI (Jacobs et al., 2001).
Factor analysis, a validity technique used to examine patterns of variance among items, might be a first step in better determining the dimensions of the CARIFS.
As described above, CARIFS convergent validity was assessed using a modified version of the YOS.
Finally, CARIFS items focus on a limited number of ARI physical symptoms.