The calcium ion (Ca2+) is very important in the regulation of several signaling pathways that are contributed to many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, gene expression, and fluid and hormones secretions.1 The (Ca2+) homeostasis is monitored under the effect of certain G-protein coupled receptor-family C known as calcium sensing receptor (CASR
).2 The highest expression of CASR
is usually seen in the kidney and the chief cells in parathyroid tissues.
It is well established that MDCK-C11 cells, a recently cloned subtype of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells akin to intercalated cells of the collecting duct, also have TRPV and CaSR
The mobile station designed by the CASR
can be operated for three days even after the failure of electricity and telecommunication.
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR
) belongs to class C of GPCR that signals in response to [Ca.sup.2+] and other ligands, such as gadolinium, polypeptides, and certain antibiotics [21, 22].
This same patient was found to have a de novo homozygote CaSR
gene mutation (Pl1e81Lys point mutation) and was diagnosed as neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) (11).
and calpain contribute to the ischemia reperfusion injury of spinal cord.
"The Cardiff Area Signalling Renewal (CASR
) project has helped to bust congestion and deliver a more reliable railway across the Cardiff and Valleys network, as well as providing a brand new platform and waiting area at Cardiff Central.
Several genetic mutations, including human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS) 1, PRSS2, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 gene (SPINK1), chymotrypsinogen C gene (CTRC), transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR
), have been noted as risk factors [2, 6].
Trp presents strong anti-inflammation activity by triggering calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR
) activation in intestine , which is a sensing receptor for dietary nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis.
Acquired BS is clinically similar to the autosomal dominant phenotypic variant, that is, type 5 Bartter syndrome, which is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR
) in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop .
The relative level of SPARC was multiplied by methylation value for islands with positive associations with PD (CASR
and GRM7) or reciprocal value for negative associations (PRAMEF2, SELP, CASP14, and KRTAP13-3).