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To improve the suspension and dispersion performance of the CBNMs in water, the collected CBNFs were stirred using a stirrer/hot plate (PC420D, Corning, USA) operated at 450 rpm for 2 h, after which they were homogenized at 5000 rpm for 20 min using a homogenizer (YOM300D, Yotec, Taiwan).
TEM (H-7100, Hitachi, Japan) and FE-SEM (JSM-7610F, JEOL, Japan) were used to identify the morphologies of the obtained CBNMs in the CBNFs.
The suspended [d.sub.p] of CBNMs is similar to the [d.sub.p] is observed using electron microscopy, thus indicating the favorable dispersion of the CBNMs in the CBNFs.
Figures 3 and 4 display TEM and FE-SEM images of the CBNMs obtained using the four process flow ratio configurations (V1-V4) and processing times of 3 and 12 min.
Figure 5 displays XRD patterns of the CBNMs that were synthesized by employing V1-V4.
The Raman spectra displayed in Figure 6 were used to determine the structure of the CBNMs synthesized using V1-V4.
However, in this study, CBNMs should also consist of AC in terms of a clear and broad range of [I.sub.2D] observing in the CBNMs produced by some of the process parameters.
Figure 7 displays the concentrations of the CBNMs in the CBNFs, as measured using the weighing method for V2-V4.
This was primarily due to the low concentration of CBNMs and the only weak effect that the CBNFs had on the enhancement of k under instrumental deviation.
The characteristics of the CBNFs and suspended CBNMs were examined using suitable instruments and test methods.
Caption: Figure 3: TEM images of CBNMs obtained using various process parameters for processing time durations of (a) 3 and (b) 12 min.
Caption: Figure 4: FE-SEM images of CBNMs obtained using various process parameters for processing time durations of (a) 3 and (b) 12 min.
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