However, in this study, CBNMs should also consist of AC in terms of a clear and broad range of [I.sub.2D] observing in the CBNMs produced by some of the process parameters.
Figure 7 displays the concentrations of the CBNMs in the CBNFs, as measured using the weighing method for V2-V4.
This was primarily due to the low concentration of CBNMs and the only weak effect that the CBNFs had on the enhancement of k under instrumental deviation.
The characteristics of the CBNFs and suspended CBNMs were examined using suitable instruments and test methods.
Caption: Figure 3: TEM images of CBNMs obtained using various process parameters for processing time durations of (a) 3 and (b) 12 min.
Caption: Figure 4: FE-SEM images of CBNMs obtained using various process parameters for processing time durations of (a) 3 and (b) 12 min.
Caption: Figure 5: XRD patterns of CBNMs obtained using various process parameter configurations.
Caption: Figure 6: Raman spectra of CBNMs obtained using various process parameter configurations.
Therefore, the smoke was cooled and condensed by the disturbed water (stage 1) and splashing water (stages 2 and 3) to form a CBNM. When the mixture of CBNM and water had flowed into the collection tank, CBNFs were produced.
An increase in the proportion of oxygen in the [O.sub.2]-[C.sub.2][H.sub.2] flame was expected to result in more complete combustion, less smog, and less CBNM. In this study, each flow ratio configuration was employed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 min; thus, a total of 16 CBNF samples were obtained.
The CBNM concentrations for V2-V4 were 0.024 wt.%, and the numbers 0-5 in each process parameter in the figure represent EP dispersant concentrations of 0,0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 wt.%, respectively.