d]85 blend were prepared where a portion of the CBOB was replaced with n-butane.
The data curve for the CBOB blends illustrates the well-known effects of ethanol blending on vapour pressure, where modest increases in vapour pressure occur at low blending levels, while substantial decreases in vapour pressure occur at the higher blending levels representative of fuel ethanol.
d]10 blend produced the same flammability limit as the CBOB ([E.
d]50 CBOB sample had an upper temperature limit of flammability below -30 [degrees]C.
d]85 CBOB blends (including those with additional n-butane) exhibited slightly lower flammability limit temperatures (relative to vapour pressure) than the fuel ethanol field samples, suggesting some sensitivity of this relationship to the exact composition of the hydrocarbon portion of the fuel.
In tests with laboratory blends, the addition of 10-30% denatured ethanol to the CBOB gasoline increased the vapour pressure of the fuel, but did not improve the upper temperature limit of flammability (i.
The addition of 50-85% denatured ethanol to the CBOB gasoline reduced the vapour pressure of the fuel and produced progressive increases in the upper temperature limit of flammability.
An aggregated LP model representing the US PADD III refinery industry is configured to produce the LOF with a RON of at least 70 at a production rate of 15% of the CBOB regular.
At the refinery level, the introduction of the LOF to replace 15% of the CBOB regular production reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming and leads to less utility consumption, higher finished product volumes and lower operating costs, increasing the refinery margins without any additional capital investment.
For example, this work assumes the LOF produced in the refinery displaces the CBOB regular blend at a fix proportion of 15%.
Volume composition of the LOF and CBOB regular in the LP model with the LOF production.