Potential model covariates were identified based on previous work within the CCAAPS cohort linking environmental exposures with outcomes, and on established risk factors for childhood behavioral disorders, including sex, race/ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, household income, Medicaid status, duration of breastfeeding, pre- and postnatal ETS exposure, hair cotinine, age of home, and child care attendance (Biederman and Faraone 2005; Braun et al.
Another potential limitation of the study is the lack of data regarding the behavioral health history of the CCAAPS families, including maternal hyperactivity.
Exposure to traffic exhaust and night cough during early childhood: the CCAAPS birth cohort.
CCAAPS is an ongoing prospective birth cohort study.
A proximity model of exposure was previously developed and applied to the CCAAPS cohort (Ryan et al.
The CCAAPS ambient air sampling network contains 24 sites (Figure 1) selected on the following characteristics: city area, proximity of pollution sources including highway and state routes, location of the study population, location relative to the major interstate highway corridors, and location relative to the predominant wind direction (Martuzevicius et al.