In 1990, CCCSA secured $15,000 from Canadian Heritage to provide a heritage language program for immigrant children.
Characteristics associated with both types of organizations described by Jenkins could be found in ECCSC and CCCSA. In 2005, ECCSC reached a membership of 150 and a volunteer base of 200, while CCCSA had 30 voting members, 200 non-voting members, and 200 volunteers.
Regarding the role of volunteers, this study found that the special qualities and the commitment of volunteers played an important part in the development of ECCSC and CCCSA. Volunteers were regarded as an integral part and a vital component of their teams.
According to the 2004-2005 CCCSA Annual Report, 90% of the organization's programs and services were delivered with the help of volunteers in 2005, totaling 12,123 hours (CCCSA 2005).
Can thus ECCSC and CCCSA still be counted as being ethno-specific organizations?
In a five-year Strategic Plan, CCCSA identified this as among its service priorities for 2006-2010: "use of simplified Chinese in our service pamphlets instead of only traditional Chinese; Mandarin classes for staff; where possible, recruit staff that represents the diverse needs of the community" (CCCSA 2006, 18).
Jim Wong, Co-Chair of CCCSA in 2005, commented on the expectations of immigrants from China, where the state plays a larger role in taking care of its citizens: "A lot of them come over expecting the government to give them a house or a place to stay, expecting they will have a job here.
An analysis of the funding difficulties experienced by both ECCSC and CCCSA demonstrates how the above view has influenced the policies and attitudes of funding bodies toward ethno-specific organizations.
The history of ASSIST and CCCSA has demonstrated that ethno-cultural organizations can be an effective alternative in providing accessible and equitable social services for immigrants because they are more closely connected with and responsive to ethnic community needs.
What united members of an ethnic group like ASSIST and CCCSA was not a common culture, but common experiences as newcomers to Canada, a shared goal to succeed in a new society, and their interdependent support relationships.